Michelangelo Pistoletto was born in Biella in 1933. His artistic
training began in the studio of his father, a painter and restorer,
where he went to work at the age of fourteen. He subsequently attended
Armando Testa’s advertising design school.
In 1955 he began to exhibit the results of the inquiry into self-portraiture
that characterized his painting in the late fifties. He received the
San Fedele Prize in Milan in 1958. In 1960 he had his first solo show
at Galleria Galatea in Turin. That same year he made several life-sized
self-portraits on gold, silver and copper monochrome backgrounds.
In 1961 he created the series of works entitled The Present,
painting his own image on a black background to which a layer of transparent
varnish gave a mirror gloss.
In 1962 he perfected the technique of his Mirror Paintings:
he produced an image on tissue paper by enlarging a photograph to
life size, painting it with the tip of a brush, then affixed it onto
a sheet of mirror-finished stainless steel (after 1971 the painted
tissue was replaced by a silkscreen of the photographic image). These
works directly include the viewer and real time, and open up perspective,
reversing the Renaissance perspective that had been closed by the
twentieth-century avant-gardes. The Mirror Paintings, shown
for the first time in March 1963 at Galleria Galatea, quickly brought
Pistoletto international acclaim and led to his inclusion in major
exhibitions of Pop Art and Nouveau Realisme. During the sixties the
artist had solo shows in important galleries and museums in Europe
and the United States (in 1964 at Galerie Sonnabend in Paris, in 1966
at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, in 1967 at the Palais des
Beaux Arts in Brussels, in 1969 at the Boijmans van Beuningen Museum
in Rotterdam). In 1967 he received the Belgian critics’ prize
and that of the São Paulo Biennale. The Mirror Paintings
are the foundation of Pistoletto’s subsequent artistic output
and of the theoretical thought that consistently parallels it.
In 1964, at Galleria Sperone in Turin, he showed the body of work
called Plexiglass—a first transposition in real space
of the new open dimension of the mirror paintings, as well as a declaration
of art’s “conceptual” character.
In 1965-1966 he showed a set of works, entitled Minus Objects,
in his studio. These works, made in the contingent dimension of time
and based on the principle of difference, broke with the dogma of
the uniformity of individual artistic style. They are considered fundamental
to the birth of Arte Povera, an art movement theorized by Germano
Celant in 1967, of which Pistoletto was a an animating force and a
In March, 1967 Pistoletto began to work outside traditional exhibition
spaces. In December of that year he announced the opening of his studio,
in a manifesto. In this context The Zoo arose—a group of people
from different artistic disciplines, together with whom Pistoletto
carried out actions conceived as creative collaborations from 1968
to 1970. Invited to the Venice Biennale in 1968, he published his
Manifesto of Collaboration.
Between October 1975 and September 1976 Pistoletto carried out a work
that was intended to fill a full year. Divided into twelve consecutive
exhibitions, entitled The Rooms, the piece occupied the spaces
of Galleria Stein in Turin. It was the first of a series of complex
works, each developed over a year’s time and named “time
continents”. Other works from the series are White Year
(1989) and Happy Turtle (1992). In 1976 he published
One Hundred Exhibitions in the Month of October, a booklet
that describes a hundred ideas for works conceived over a month, many
of which he carried out in the following years.
In March 1978, in a show at Galleria Persano in Turin, Pistoletto
defined two main directions his future artwork would take: Division
and Multiplication of the Mirror and Art Takes On Religion.
In this same month he began a one-year residency at DAAD in Berlin,
in which city he presented a retrospective exhibition at the Nationalgalerie
and in thirteen public places.
Over the two-year period, 1978-1979, he presented a series of one-person
shows, installations and actions in cities across the United States.
This included Creative Collaboration in Atlanta, a broad
creative partnership extended to the entire city, in which he involved
local artists from different disciplines together with artists with
whom he had worked in the past (actor Lionello Gennero, musician Enrico
Rava, composer Morton Feldmann) and members of his family. His artistic
collaborations continued throughout 1979 in different places, particularly
at Corniglia (Liguria), a village with whose inhabitants he staged
the play Anno Uno at the Teatro Qurino in Rome in 1981.
In 1981, at Salvatore Ala Gallery in New York, Pistoletto showed The
Nativity, a first example of the rigid polyurethane sculptures
he created in the early eighties. In 1984 he remade some of these
works in marble and on a large scale in his one-person show at Forte
di Belvedere in Florence.
From 1985 to 1989 he created a new cycle of works, made up of surfaces
and volumes in anonymous materials and dark, gloomy colors, called
Art of Squalor, exhibited at Galleria Persano in
Turin and at Galleria Pieroni in Rome.
In 1991 he was appointed Professor of Sculpture at the Vienna Fine
Arts Academy, a position he kept until 2000. With his students, he
developed an innovative program intent on breaking down the traditional
barriers between artistic disciplines.
In 1993 he began the phase called Art Sign, based on an idea
conceived in One Hundred Exhibitions in the Month of October
(1976). In addition to producing a series of works sharing a form
that constituted his personal Art Sign, the artist invited
other people, on diverse occasions, to create and present an Art
Sign of their own.
In 1994 began Project Art with which Pistoletto—by
means of a program manifesto, public meetings, displays and exhibitions
that involved artists of different disciplines and representatives
of broad sectors of society—placed art at the center of socially
1998 witnessed the establishment of Cittadellarte-Fondazione Pistoletto
in a former mill in Biella, Italy, acquired by the artist in 1991.
Here the goals expressed in Project Art are still being developed
2000 saw the inauguration, at the Paoli-Calmettes Cancer Institute
in Marseille, of the Place of Meditation and Prayer, a multiconfessional,
secular space conceived and executed by the artist.
In 2002 Pistoletto was Artistic Director of the Turin International
Biennial of Young Art entitled Big Social Game. That same
year he received the Diploma di Benemerito della Cultura e dell’Arte
from the President of the Italian Republic.
In 2003 he was awarded the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement at
the Venice Biennale. At the same Biennale he presented Love Difference
- Artistic Movement for an InterMediterranean Politic, a project
born in April 2002 at Cittadellarte, for which Pistoletto made a large
reflecting table in the shape of the Mediterranean basin, around which
many of the subsequent activities of Love Difference took
In 2004 Turin University graduated him with a laurea honoris causa
in Political Science. On that occasion the artist publicly announced
the most recent phase of his work, Third Paradise, whose symbol is a reconfiguration of the mathematical sign for infinity conceived by the artist in 2003. From
2007, with the collaboration between Pistoletto and the musician Gianna
Nannini, curated by RAM Radioartemobile, the Third
Paradise evolved into a multimedia work in progress.
In 2007, in Jerusalem, Pistoletto was awarded the Wolf Foundation
Prize in the Arts, “for his constantly inventive career as an
artist, educator and activist whose restless intelligence has created
prescient forms of art that contribute to fresh understanding of the
In 2010 he wrote the essay The Third Paradise, published in Italian, English, French and German.
In 2011 he was the artistic director of Evento 2011 – L'art pour une ré-évolution urbaine in Bordeaux.
In 2012 he started promoting the Rebirth-day, first worldwide day of rebirth, celebrated every year on 21st December with initiatives taking place all around the world. In that same year he is bestowed the title of Grand Officer of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic.
In 2013 the Louvre in Paris hosted his personal exhibition Michelangelo Pistoletto, année un – le paradis sur terre. In this same year he received the Praemium Imperiale for painting, in Tokyo.
In 2014 the symbol of the Third Paradise was installed in the hall of the headquarters of the Council of the European Union in Bruxelles for the period of the Italian Presidency of the European Council.
In May 2015 he received a degree honoris causa from the Universidad de las Artes of Havana in Cuba for "his contribution to contemporary art and his influence on several generations of artists".
In October of the same year he realizes a work, called Rebirth, in the park of the Palais des Nations in Geneva, headquarters of the UN, costituted of a huge symbol of the Third Paradise formed of 193 stones, one for each UN State Member. In April 2016, Brera Academy of Fine Arts confers him an Honorary Degree in Communication and Art Education.
Main solo exhibitions in museums:
1966, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis; 1967, Palais des Beaux Arts, Brussels; 1969, Boymans van Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam; 1973, Kestner Gesellschaft, Hannover; 1974, Matildenhohe, Darmstadt; 1976, Palazzo Grassi, Venezia; 1978, Nationalgalerie, Berlin; 1979, Rice Demenil Museum, Houston; 1983, Palacio de Cristal, Madrid; 1984, Forte di Belvedere, Firenze; 1988, P.S.1, New York; Staatliche Kunsthalle, Baden Baden; 1989, Kunsthalle, Bern; Secession, Vienna; 1990, Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna, Rome; 1991, Museet for Samditkunst, Oslo; 1993, Deichtorhallen, Hamburg; 1994, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Seoul; 1995, Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts, Wien; 1996, Lenbachhaus, Munich; 1997, Centro per l’Arte Contemporanea Luigi Pecci, Prato; 1999, MMAO, Oxford; Henry Moore Foundation, Halifax; Galerie Taxispalais, Innsbruck; 2000: GAM, Turin; MACBA, Barcelona; 2001: Musée d'Art Contemporain, Lyon; Contemporary Museum of Bosnia, Sarajevo; Ludwig Museum, Budapest; 2003, MuHKA, Antwerp; 2005, Galleria Civica, Modena; 2007, MAMAC, Nice; NCCA, Mosca; 2010: MARCA, Catanzaro; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia; 2011: MAXXI, Roma; 2012: Universalmuseum Joanneum, Graz; 2013: Musée du Louvre, Paris; 2016: GAMeC, Bergamo; Blenheim Palace, Woodstock; Museo National de Bellas Artes, La Habana.
He has participated twelve times in the Venice Biennale (1966, 1968, 1976, 1978, 1984, 1986, 1993, 1995, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2011) and four times in Documenta, Kassel (1968, 1982, 1992 and 1997).
His works are present in the collections of leading museums of modern and contemporary art, including:
Antwerpen, MuHKA - Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst
Barcellona, Macba - Museu d’art contemporani de Barcelona
Berlin, Neue Nationalgalerie
Bruxelles, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique
Dallas, Dallas Museum of Art
Des Moines, Des Moines Art Center
Detroit, Detroit Institut of Art
Eindhoven, Stedelijk van Abbemuseum
Firenze, Galleria degli Uffizi
Fort Worth, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth
Frankfurt am Main, MMK – Museum für Moderne Kunst
Gent, S.M.A.K. – Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst
Graz, Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum
Houston, The Menil Collection
Ithaca, Herbert F. Johnson Museum
London, Tate Modern
Los Angeles, LACMA - Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Madrid, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía
Marseille, MAC - Musées d´Art Contemporain
Marseille, MuCEM - Museée des civilisations de l'Europe et de la Méditerraneée
Milano, Museo del Novecento
Minneapolis, Walker Art Center
Mönchengladbach, Städtisches Museum Abteiberg
München, Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus
Napoli, Museo d’Arte Contemporanea Donna Regina Madre
Napoli, Museo di Capodimonte
New Orleans, New Orleans Museum of Art
New York, Brooklyn Museum
New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
New York, MoMA - The Museum of Modern Art
New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
Nice, MAMAC - Musée d'Art Moderne et d'Art Contemporain
Northampton, Smith College Museum of Art
Oslo, The National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design
Otterlo, Kröller-Müller Museum
Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou-Musee National d'Art Modern
Porto, Fundação de Serralves - Museu de Arte Contemporânea
Prag, National Gallery - Veletrní Palace
Prato, Centro per l'Arte Contemporanea Luigi Pecci
Rivoli, Museo d'Arte Contemporanea Castello di Rivoli
Rochechouart, Musée déepartemental d’art contemporain
Roma, GNAM - Galleria Nazionale d'arte moderna
Roma, MAXXI - Museo Nazionale delle Arti del XXI Secolo
Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans van Beuningen
Rovereto, Museo per l’Arte Contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto (MART)
Saint-Étienne, Musee d'art modene de Saint-Étienne Metropole
San Francisco, MOMASF-Museum of Modern Art
Seul, National Museum of Contemporary Art
Torino, GAM - Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea
Toyama, The Museum of Modern Art
Toyota, Toyota Municipal Museum of Art
Vaduz, Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein
Washington, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution
Washington, National Gallery of Art
Wien, MUMOK - Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig
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